Document Type : Research Article


Department of Corrective Exercise and Sport Injury, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran


Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries in taekwondo fighters. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eight-week functional training on soft surfaces on the balance and electromyographic activity of the muscles of female taekwondo fighters.
Methods: In this randomized field trial study conducted in Tehran, we selected 16 female taekwondo athletes and assigned them to experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed functional exercises on soft surfaces for eight weeks and three sessions per week. We collected the electromyography activity of muscles by a 16-Channel wireless Electromyography Model V 4.24 (Bayamed Company, Iran) in the biomechanics laboratory of the Allameh Tabataba’i University. Before and after the functional training protocol, we recorded the electrical activity of tibialis anterior, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris muscles of stance leg while performing Dollyo Chagi. We analyzed the data using ANCOVA at a significant level of P≤0.05.
Results: Eight-week taekwondo training on soft surfaces was significantly effective in reducing the Center of Pressure displacement (P=0.002 and P=0.045) and standard deviation (P=0.023 and P=0.022) concerning internal-external and anteriorposterior directions, respectively. Moreover, we observed an increase in the electromyographic activity of medial gastrocnemius muscle at 100 ms before foot initial contact (P=0.030).
Conclusions: The results of this study showed that functional taekwondo training on soft surfaces was able to increase the balance of athletes and augment the feed-forward electrical activity of medial gastrocnemius muscle. Therefore, it seems that these exercises can be used to prevent ankle injuries in these athletes.


1. Lystad RP, Graham PL, Poulos RG. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates and severity of competition injuries in Australian amateur taekwondo athletes: a 2-year prospective study. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(7): 441-6. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091666. [PubMed: 23242960]. ## 2. Atay E. Prevalence of Sport Injuries among Middle School Children and Suggestions for Their Prevention. J Phys Ther Sci.. 2014;26(9):1455-57. doi: 10.1589/jpts.26.1455. [PubMed: 25276035]. [PubMed Central: PMC4175256]. ## 3. Varkiani M, Alizadeh M, Kazemi M, Nazari H, Ghafoorian A. Taekwondo competition injuries in Iranian premier league: a prospective study. International Journal of Sport Studies. 2013;3(5):542-48. ## 4. Ziaee V, Rahmani S-H, Rostami M. Injury rates in Iranian taekwondo athletes; a prospective study. Asian j sports med. 2010;1(1):23. doi: 10.5812/asjsm.34877. [PubMed: 22375188]. [PubMed Central: PMC3289167]. ## 5. Delahunt E, Coughlan GF, Caulfield B, Nightingale EJ, Lin CW, Hiller CE. Inclusion criteria when investigating insufficiencies in chronic ankle instability. Med sci sports exerc. 2010;42(11):2106-21. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181de7a8a. [PubMed: 20351590]. ## 6. Naderi A, Baloochi R, Jabbari F, Eslami R. Comparison between the effects of core stability exercises and neuromuscular exercises on dynamic balance and lower limb function of athletes with functional ankle instability. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2016;21(4):61-72. ## 7. Ha SC-W, Fong DT-P, Chan K-M. Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory. Asia Pac J Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol. 2015;2(4):114-21. doi:10.1016/j.asmart.2015.08.002. [PubMed: 29264250]. [PubMed Central: PMC5730649]. ## 8. Hoch MC, Farwell KE, Gaven SL, Weinhandl JT. Weight-Bearing Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Landing Biomechanics in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability. J Athl Train.. 2015;50(8):833-39. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-50.5.07. [PubMed: 26067428]. [PubMed Central: PMCPMC4629940]. ## 9. Terada M, Pietrosimone B, Gribble PA. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit altered landing knee kinematics: potential link with the mechanism of loading for the anterior cruciate ligament. Clin Biomech. 2014;29(10):1125-30. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.09.014. [PubMed: 25306177]. ## 10. Kazemi K, Arab AM, Abdollahi I, López-López D, Calvo-Lobo C. Electromiography comparison of distal and proximal lower limb muscle activity patterns during external perturbation in subjects with and without functional ankle instability. Human mov sci. 2017;55:211-20. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2017.08.013. [PubMed: 28843163]. ## 11. Roca-Dols A, Losa-Iglesias ME, Sanchez-Gomez R, Lopez-Lopez D, Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo R, Calvo-Lobo C. Electromyography comparison of the effects of various footwear in the activity patterns of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2018;82:126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.03.003. [PubMed: 29597146]. ## 12. O’Driscoll J, Kerin F, Delahunt E. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol. : SMARTT. 2011;3:13. doi: 10.1186/1758-2555-3-13. [PubMed: 21658224]. [PubMed Central: PMCPMC3141569]. ## 13. Mettler A, Chinn L, Saliba SA, McKeon PO, Hertel J. Balance training and center-of-pressure location in participants with chronic ankle instability. J Athl Train. 2015;50(4):343-9. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.94. [PubMed: 25562457]; [PubMed Central: PMCPMC4559992]. ## 14. Malliou P, Gioftsidou A, Pafis G, Beneka A, Godolias G. Proprioceptive training (balance exercises) reduces lower extremity injuries in young soccer players. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2004;17(3-4):101-04. doi: 10.3233/BMR-2004-173-403. ## 15. Brachman A, Kamieniarz A, Michalska J, Pawłowski M, Słomka KJ, Juras G. Balance Training Programs in Athletes - a Systematic Review. J Hum Kinet. 2017;58:45-64. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0088. [PubMed: 28828077]. [Pubmed Central: PMC5548154]. ## 16. Saberian Amirkolaei AA, Balouchy R, Sheikhhoseini R. The Effect of Eight Weeks Swiss Ball Training on Teenage Badminton Players’ Functional Movements Integration and Balance. Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences & Research. 2019;6:153-59. doi: 10.30476/jrsr.2019.81534.1002. ## 17. Shih YF, Yu HT, Chen WY, Liao KK, Lin HC, Yang YR. The effect of additional joint mobilization on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability. Phys Ther Sport.. 2018;30:22-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2017.12.001. [PubMed: 29310055]. ## 18. Park S, Ko YM, Park JW. The Correlation between Dynamic Balance Measures and Stance Sub-phase COP Displacement Time in Older Adults during Obstacle Crossing. J Phys Ther Sci.. 2013;25(9):1193-6. doi: 10.1589/jpts.25.1193. [PubMed: 24259944]. [PubMed Central: PMCPMC3818769]. ## 19. Streich NA, Barie A, Gotterbarm T, Keil M, Schmitt H. Transphyseal reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in prepubescent athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010;18(11):1481-6. doi: 10.1007/s00167-010-1057-9.[PubMed: 20130837]. ## 20. Goble DJ, Coxon JP, Wenderoth N, Van Impe A, Swinnen SP. Proprioceptive sensibility in the elderly: degeneration, functional consequences and plastic-adaptive processes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33(3):271-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.08.012. [PubMed: 18793668]. ## 21. Zebis MK, Bencke J, Andersen LL, Dossing S, Alkjaer T, Magnusson SP, et al. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players. Clin J Sport Med. 2008;18(4):329-37. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31817f3e35. [PubMed: 18614884]. ## 22. Santello M. Review of motor control mechanisms underlying impact absorption from falls. Gait Posture. 2005;21(1):85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.01.005. [PubMed : 15536038]. ## 23. Jafari H, Shah Hosseini GR, Ebrahimi E, Shaterzadeh MJ. Timing and Electrical Activity of Knee Related Muscles in Active and Reactive Movement Patterns in Healty Men. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2003;10(35):361-70. ## 24. Sekir U, Yildiz Y, Hazneci B, Ors F, Aydin T. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15(5):654-64. doi: 10.1007/s00167-006-0108-8. [PubMed: 16770637]. ##