Document Type: Review Article


1 Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Context: The decline in fertility rate is one of the most important social changes that has happened in human history. Given the paucity of research done in this regard, the present study aimed to review the relationship between gender equality indicators and fertility rate.
Evidence Acquisition: Gender equity represent an important challenge for fertility research. Primarily, this paper briefly reviewed the research, conducted in certain countries, on gender roles and fertility followed by Gender Gap Index (GGI); because sudden change in population growth in countries led researchers to think about this issue. So searching the past and analyzing data in valid electronic databases, reviewing was done the concepts related to gender equality and population growth and fertility rate.
Results: Our findings suggested that to increase fertility rate, gender equality should be achieved.
Conclusions: The simultaneous attainment of gender equality and high fertility in any country is likely to be related to economic, social, cultural, religious, and familial conditions.