Document Type : Commentry


1 Department of Sport Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Cardiovascular diseases are known to be the leading cause of death around the world, accounting for more than 17 million deaths annually. The main cause of this type of disease is high blood pressure. Prevention and treatment of hypertension are of great importance given the high prevalence and side effects of high blood pressure. Research has shown that high blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension (HTN), or a chronic increase in arterial blood pressure, affects one billion people all over the world annually and is the main factor for mortality of about 7 million people globally, which imposes a significant financial and public burden on societies. That said, 33% of adults in the world are afflicted with HTN, whose incidence of course increases with age.


1. Gaziano TA, Bitton A, Anand S, Abrahams-Gessel S, Murphy A. Growing epidemic of coronary heart disease in low- and middle-income countries. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2010;35(2):72-115. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2009.10.002. PubMed PMID: 20109979; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2864143. ## 2. Hajjar I, Kotchen JM, Kotchen TA. Hypertension: trends in prevalence, incidence, and control. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:465-90. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.27.021405.102132. PubMed PMID: 16533126. ## 3. Sarrafzadegan N, Mohammmadifard N. Cardiovascular Disease in Iran in the Last 40 Years: Prevalence, Mortality, Morbidity, Challenges and Strategies for Cardiovascular Prevention. Arch Iran Med. 2019;22(4):204-210. PubMed PMID: 31126179. ## 4. Aronow WS, Fleg JL, Pepine CJ, Artinian NT, Bakris G, Brown AS, et l. ACCF/AHA 2011 expert consensus document on hypertension in the elderly: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus documents developed in collaboration with the American Academy of Neurology, American Geriatrics Society, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American Society of Hypertension, American Society of Nephrology, Association of Black Cardiologists, and European Society of Hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(20):2037-114. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.008. PubMed PMID: 21524875. ## 5. Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(1):e004473. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.004473. PubMed PMID: 23525435; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3603230. ## 6. Peters PG, Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Ashton T, Nagy S, Wiley RL. Short-term isometric exercise reduces systolic blood pressure in hypertensive adults: possible role of reactive oxygen species. Int J Cardiol. 2006;110(2):199-205. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.07.035. PubMed PMID: 16239039. ## 7. Ray CA, Wilson TE. Comparison of skin sympathetic nerve responses to isometric arm and leg exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(1):160-4. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00699.2003. PubMed PMID: 15033962. ## 8. Devereux GR, Wiles JD, Swaine IL. Reductions in resting blood pressure after 4 weeks of isometric exercise training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(4):601-6. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1394-x. PubMed PMID: 20186425. ## 9. Devereux GR, Coleman D, Wiles JD, Swaine I. Lactate accumulation following isometric exercise training and its relationship with reduced resting blood pressure. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(11):1141-8. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2012.692482. PubMed PMID: 22694486. ## 10. Baross AW, Wiles JD, Swaine IL. Effects of the intensity of leg isometric training on the vasculature of trained and untrained limbs and resting blood pressure in middle-aged men. Int J Vasc Med. 2012;2012:964697. doi: 10.1155/2012/964697. PubMed PMID: 22991668; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3443998. ## 11. Millar PJ, Bray SR, MacDonald MJ, McCartney N. The hypotensive effects of isometric handgrip training using an inexpensive spring handgrip training device. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2008;28(3):203-7. doi: 10.1097/01.HCR.0000320073.66223.a7. PubMed PMID: 18496321. ## 12. McGowan CL, Levy AS, McCartney N, MacDonald MJ. Isometric handgrip training does not improve flow-mediated dilation in subjects with normal blood pressure. Clin Sci. 2007;112(7):403-9. doi: 10.1042/CS20060195. PubMed PMID: 17140398. ## 13. Millar PJ, Levy AS, McGowan CL, McCartney N, MacDonald MJ. Isometric handgrip training lowers blood pressure and increases heart rate complexity in medicated hypertensive patients. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(5):620-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01435.x. PubMed PMID: 22260503. ## 14. Shakoor E, Salesi S, Daryanoosh F, Izadpanah P. Effect of Acute High-Intensity Interval Training and Isometric Handgrip Exercise on Hemodynamic Responses in Hypertensive Women. Women Health Bull. 2020;7(3):60-69. doi: 10.30476/WHB.2020.86948.1063. ## 15. McGowan CL, Visocchi A, Faulkner M, Verduyn R, Rakobowchuk M, Levy AS, McCartney N, Macdonald MJ. Isometric handgrip training improves local flow-mediated dilation in medicated hypertensives. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98(4):355-62. doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0282-x. PubMed PMID: 16924526. ## 16. Taylor AC, McCartney N, Kamath MV, Wiley RL. Isometric training lowers resting blood pressure and modulates autonomic control. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(2):251-6. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000048725.15026.B5. PubMed PMID: 12569213. ##