Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Shiraz Endocrine Research Center, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Midwifery, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad University, Estahban, Iran

5 Maternal-fetal medicine Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

6 School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Hysterosalpingography is a vital diagnostic method for identifying anatomical causes of infertility, often used as a cost-effective screening test. This study aimed to investigate hysterosalpingography results in infertile women.
Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, and analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 infertile couples referred to Ghadir Maternal and Child Hospital in Shiraz, Iran between February and July 2015-2016. Data were collected from patient records and hysterosalpingography findings. A questionnaire encompassing demographic information and hysterosalpingography results was utilized. Qualitative and quantitative variables were described using frequency and mean± standard deviation. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, Chi-square, and generalized linear models via IBM SPSS version 22.
Results: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) revealed that 145 women (80.6%) exhibited normal uterine and tubal findings, while 35 women (19.4%) displayed abnormal results (classified as normal and abnormal HSG findings). Women with abnormal hysterosalpingography were observed to have a higher likelihood of primary infertility (OR=3.8, 95%CI (1.427-10.10), P=0.008). Furthermore, the study assessed the impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) and identified that women in the abnormal HSG group had a higher body mass index (OR=0.89, 95%CI (0.794-0.992), P=0.035).
Conclusions: Tubal adhesion stemming from undiagnosed and untreated sexual infections can lead to primary infertility. Limited resources may hinder timely detection and treatment access, exacerbating the issue. The correlation between obesity and infertility could be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle in low-income families. Encouraging health education within low to middle-income communities is recommended to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote healthier lifestyles, ultimately reducing the incidence of primary infertility.


Bahar Morshed Behbahani (Google Scholar), (PubMed)

Leila Doryanizadeh (Google Scholar), (PubMed)

How to Cite: Morshed-Behbahani B, Doryanizadeh L, Parsanezhad ME, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Jokar A, Ghaemi SZ, Zare M, Ghaemmaghami P. Hysterosalpingography Findings in Infertile Women and Their Relationship with Demographic Variables: A Retrospective Study. Women. Health. Bull. 2023;10(3):173-181. doi: 10.30476/WHB.2023.97952.1222.


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